This profile has a lot of material, so we ended up splitting it into two parts. These are :
- Batroc profile #1 – Du chaud, du chausson (Powers, skills, savate fighting, Brigades, early history).
- Batroc profile #2 – Le tireur dans les coins (Later history, personality, quotes, game stats for DCH and M&M).
- Real Name: Georges Batroc.
- Other Aliases: Monsieur Lapin (fake ID commonly used to travel – literally “Mister Rabbit”).
- Marital Status: Single.
- Known Relatives: Marie Batroc (alleged daughter).
- Group Affiliation: Leader of several versions of the Batroc’s Brigade, member of the Initiative ; former member of the Thunderbolts, “Defenders”, the French Foreign Legion, the Legion Accursed, the Lethal Legion.
- Base Of Operations: Mobile.
- Height: 6’ Weight: 225lbs.
- Eyes: Brown Hair: Black
Powers & Abilities
Georges Batroc follows an intensive training regimen magnifying the natural power of his body. He’s extremely fast and agile, performs world-class acrobatics, and possesses remarkable strength.
His level of strength is, in fact, suspect. It is entirely possible he has some sort of low-level, low-profile mutation, especially when it comes to the strength in his legs.
Batroc is capable of leaping about 10 feet in the air unaided. He has repeatedly demonstrated an ability to kick into a brick wall a hole large enough for a man to crawl through, or to wreck a well-made handgun by stamping on it. Many of the leaps he’s made — particularly standing jumps — do not seem humanly possible, even by super-hero comic books standards.
Batroc has an endurance proportionate to his strength. He can be hit repeatedly by Captain America or even Mister Hyde and keep on fighting. His costume has enough Kevlar to stop most small arms fire, though the impact will still hurt. Recent versions also include goggles.
Batroc once demonstrated the ability to kick small objects with enormous force and significant accuracy, turning them into lethal projectiles. Since he seldom does this, it is probable that only small, round or spherical objects can reliably be used that way. In the documented example, he kicked back a large coin flipped in his direction so it embedded itself in Deadpool’s hand.
Batroc is possibly the best tireur (savate fighter) in the world. He has demonstrated an ability to fight in combat singulier (one-on-one) such legendary hand-to-hand fighters as Captain America or Iron Fist.
Though his initial training is in savate (French kickboxing) and military hand-to-hand techniques, he fights with a unique style leveraging his strengths. Batroc’s form is highly acrobatic and emphases all sorts of flashy kicks — jump kicks, spin kicks, flying kicks (he loves those), etc.
Back when kickboxing was relatively unknown, Batroc would often dramatically announce that he practised “savate — zee art of fighting wiz zee feet !” — given his tendency to favour memorable statements over accurate ones. But he’s actually an expert in martial arts techniques and can quickly recognise styles used against him.
This can give him interesting insight, such as when he realised that Captain America (James Barnes) was employing systema moves. Among many other, Batroc is a master of krav maga – which is his preferred style when teaching hand-to-hand combat.
Furthermore, Batroc is a skilled and experienced soldier, commando, adventurer, seducer, gambler and the like. He’s an observant man and has a keen eye about human relationship – which allows him to be manipulative if he needs to.
In 2011 he developed an interest in parkour urban acrobatics after meeting two traceurs (parkour practitioners) and realising that their philosophy about life wasn’t unlike his own. Batroc quickly learned the techniques, and has been using parkour as his new basis to teach acrobatics.
Batroc is also wealthy thanks to high-priced mercenary jobs. He often earns windfalls beyond his normal income, allowing to enjoy enormous Manhattan or Monte Carlo penthouses, luxurious barges towed by a private tug, contracts to assemble a Batroc’s Brigade, gambling sprees, etc… until he ends up in prison and the cops seize some of his assets.
Variations in power level
The depictions of Batroc in the Marvel Universe have oscillated for decades, with a “weak” state and a “strong” state. Some writers (such as Defalco, Kelly, or Robinson) treat him as a joke. Some treat him as a fighter powerful enough to go toe-to-toe with Captain America for a good while.
Those depictions go back and forth and even co-exist. There isn’t a clean way to treat the weak and strong state as separate writeups.
The difference in performance is never explained in-universe, but here is our No-Prize (that is, NON-CANON) hypothesis. Batroc might be suffering from a degenerative medical condition resulting in periods of chronic fatigue, slight dizziness, shaking and reduced endurance.
This hypothesis might explain his spells of poor performance, his remarkable devotion toward training himself to be a world-class athlete and martial artist (to try to beat, or at least stall, his condition) and his oddly jovial and bombastic manner (as overcompensation). Spells of weakness and disorientation did not appear in his youth, but by 1995 or so they become noticeable.
One could also invoke the now traditional Earth-A impostor explanation (from She-Hulk vol. 2 #21 (2007) ), with the weaker and more buffoonish appearances being the otherdimensional impostor.
Batroc briefly experimented with melee weapons, but prefers to remain an unarmed fighter.
The first was a whip-cane. This is a flexible fighting stick about a yard and a half long. Presumably it was meant as an equaliser against opponents with weapons… or shields. Batroc is fond of mentioning that a whip-cane can kill a man in three blows. He only used it twice then discarded it.
He once used neural shock boots, which were a sort of stun gun built into his boots. He quickly discarded those, presumably because they gave him an unfair advantage.
La boxe française
Savate is originally a combination of French streetfighting techniques and of a kicks-heavy style of brawling used by sailors in Southern France. It is often thought to have been developed to fight on rocking boats.
By the 1830s it was combined with English boxing to become a kickboxing discipline. British observers were chiefly impressed by the numerous types of kicks, which were forbidden in English boxing.
Savate fighting was often taught along with cane fighting, as well as in some salles (fencing schools). Nowadays it is chiefly a codified, competitive fighting sport called boxe française (French boxing), though like with most martial arts there are also people researching and practising historical forms.
The word ’savate‘ is also the name of a type of shoe. As is another historical name for that style, chausson.
Tremblez face à la Brigade de Batroc !
Here are the various versions of the Batroc’s Brigade, in chronological order.
- The first Brigade was the Living Laser and the Swordsman (Jacques Duquesne)
- The second Brigade was Porcupine (Alexander Gentry) and the Whirlwind
- The third Brigade was seven Huge Muscular Fighters. They could use Team Attacks once per story, which is unusual for thugs. They are illustrated below.
- The fourth Brigade was 20+ Evil Karateka. Some were killed by the Ninja.
- Another group was not formally an iteration of the Brigade – it’s the commando that helped free Mr. Hyde. Those were Shock Troopers with full military gear and combination gas mask/IR goggles. The may have been alumni from the French Foreign Legion.
- Next came the classic version of Batroc’s Brigade – Machete and Zaran.
- In 2008, Batroc was operating with a small commando very similar to the one that had helped him free Hyde. These men were obviously ex-military and performed in a solid, disciplined manner. Given the rest of the story that may have been American ex-Special Forces troops. They were not formally considered a version of the Brigade.
- In 2011, Batroc assembled another Brigade. These were 5 men to whom he taught parkour, krav maga, and the handling of ritual Atlantean weapons (specifically a large, nasty bone club). These men are genuinely dangerous and can take on some superhumans.
DCH In DC Heroes these guys are about DEX 05 STR 04 BODY 05, Martial artist: 05, and perhaps 15 Hero Points. Their ninja-ish costumes seem likely armoured [Skin armour: 01, Shade: 02] and their bone clubs seemed to have remarkable properties — perhaps [BODY 06 EV 04 (05 w/STR, 06 w/Martial Artist), Sharpness (EV): 01].
M&M In DC Adventures that’s about +7 offence bonus with both unarmed (damage 2) and Atlantean clubs (damage 5), parry 8, dodge 8, fortitude 7, will 3, toughness 5 (8 w/armoured costume).
In 2012, a variant Brigade was made up of Batroc, Zaran, Rapido and Machete (a woman, name unknown, her only appearance so far).
The movie version of Batroc — played by MMA champ and über-athlete George St-Pierre is a slightly different character. But these are certainly valuable visuals.
Georges Batroc is an adventurous, roguish Marseilles native. He is said to have trained in the savate style of kickboxing while he was serving with the French Foreign Legion. Building upon the Legion training and demanding physical discipline, he became an extraordinary unarmed fighter, strongman and acrobat.
Batroc acquired an enviable reputation as an international mercenary. He was seen as a man who could triumph over any odds, in style.
Early duels with Captain America, part 1
Thus, when a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent (later identified as Agent 13, and later still as Sharon Carter) stole a canister from THEM, the shadowy conspiracy hired Batroc to pit him against the S.H.I.E.L.D. super-spies. Unknown to Agent 13, the canister held an alien compound, Inferno 42 – an extremely potent incendiary and explosive.
Batroc did recover the canister despite S.H.I.E.L.D.’s efforts. But he was then attacked by Captain America, who soon proved to be a superior fighter. Agent 13 leveraged the fight to grab the canister and run away with it.
During the brawl, Batroc noticed that the canister had been dented and was starting to glow. Explaining to Cap that the Inferno 42 might explode and destroy the whole of New York City, he offered an alliance to reclaim the canister and save the city.
Cap more or less accepted the offer. Thus, he and Batroc fought through the various S.H.I.E.L.D. defences activated by Agent 13 until they could catch up with her.
Batroc then challenged Cap to a duel to get the canister. Although Cap was visibly superior, Batroc got a lucky shot in and kicked Cap through a window. However, it was a trap. Knowing that Batroc had no choice but to rush the canister to the nearest THEM base before it exploded, Cap had faked defeat then shadowed him.
As Batroc was arguing the matter of his payment with the treacherous representatives of THEM, Captain America barged in. Batroc offered Cap a new alliance to catch the THEM men, since they hadn’t paid him. However, Captain America blamed Batroc for exposing Agent 13 to noxious Inferno 42 radiation and attacked. Knowing that he was outmatched, Batroc jump-kicked through a wall and fled.
Early duels with Captain America, part 2
Batroc intensified his training so he could meet Captain America on better terms. Wanting a rematch against the star-spangled Avenger, he took an HYDRA contract to capture Agent 13.
Batroc had noted that Cap was attracted toward her – for whom can hyde zee meestery of ze love to zee eyes of ze French ?. Therefore, he negotiated with HYDRA for the right to battle Cap alone when he would inevitably come to the rescue.
The two men fought a fair duel. Cap gradually gained the upper hand but Batroc fought on, refusing to concede. The HYDRA soldiers, impressed by the power of the duellists, reached the conclusion that they were both too much of a threat to live and reneged on the deal. They opened fire on both Batroc and Cap.
Immediately allying with each other, Batroc and Cap beat up all HYDRA agents and rescued Agent 13. As he leapt outside, Batroc implied that he would have saved Carter from HYDRA even if he had won the duel.
Some time later, Batroc was informed that “a certain nation” was offering a cool million. The job was to find an experimental seismo-bomb, which a foreign spy had brought into New York City.
Expecting stiff opposition from S.H.I.E.L.D. and others, Batroc recruited another Gallic martial artist – the Swordsman (Jacques Duquesne) – plus the Living Laser. That was the first version of Batroc’s Brigade.
Captain America narrowly defeated the Swordsman, then defeated the Living Laser. As Batroc and Cap fought, Cap told the Frenchman that the seismo-bomb would detonate very soon, razing New York City. Batroc stopped their duel and told Cap how to disarm the bomb. While the American was doing so Batroc quickly left, presumably grabbing the Swordsman and the Laser on his way out.
Though this version of the Brigade fell apart, Batroc again experimented with working with classic 1960s Marvel villains. He assembled a second Brigade made up of the Porcupine and Whirlwind. They received a contract from the Hood (seemingly a masked Baron Strucker, but actually an android built by Machinesmith) to kill Captain America.
Batroc and his men raced to Cap’s location in some sort of super-car, vaguely reminiscent of a red version of the Mach 5 . However the thee men had not yet trained to work together. Thus, they mostly hampered each other. Cap called the Porcupine and the Whirlwind flunkies of Batroc, further wrecking the lot’s coordination.
Soon a bunch of police charged in. Batroc had Whirlwind grab him and the Porcupine then fly away since it was obviously not working.
I get a kick out of you
Batroc then uncharacteristically agreed to a plot involving kidnapping children for an unknown party. For this assignment he assembled a fourth Batroc’s Brigade made up of seven huge men, specialising in melee combat.
When an angry Captain America charged in, Batroc and his men stopped him. But Cap’s partner the Falcon then attacked. Soon after that, Batroc discovered that his employer was actually a mysterious space alien – Jakar, a lookalike of the Stranger.
Shocked that what he thought was a clever kidnapping ploy turned to be much more sinister, Batroc left his Brigade behind to distract the heroes. He tracked Jakar down, intending to redeem his honour by beating him up and freeing the kids. Batroc was defeated by Jakar and paralysed, but Falcon’s pet Redwing had been shadowing him.
Thus Cap and the Falcon soon burst into Jakar’s base. They set Batroc free so he could help them against the alien. Jakar eventually left after freeing the children, and Batroc was arrested. Howbeit he bragged he would be free within days or perhaps even hours.
Like unto a thing of iron
And indeed, Batroc was soon hired by American industrialist Ward Meachum to kill Iron Fist (Daniel Rand). Somehow, Batroc knew of Iron Fist’s prowess, though the young dragon had barely left K‘un-Lun at that point. It is possible that Batroc thought that Rand was the previous Iron Fist, Orson Randall.
The two men fought a fairly even duel until the living weapon used the iron fist. This knocked Batroc down and apparently broke his left arm. Batroc had his new Brigade, two dozens of martial artists practising a variety of styles, charge in. These men were met and defeated by Iron Fist and his mystical ally, the Ninja.
Meachum subsequently refused to pay Batroc in full. This greatly angered the mercenary since several of his men had died under the sword of the Ninja and the widows were entitled to be paid in full for their loss. Disgusted by Meachum but with his arm still broken Batroc stormed out. The Frenchman claimed that next time they met, he might very well be fighting alongside Iron Fist.
Batroc then had a friendly encounter with an extradimensional monster, whom he called “Diable” (“Devil”).
He was next briefly seen as part of the fake “Defenders” assembled by Sagittarius. During this bizarre tale he fought another martial artist, the White Tiger (Hector Ayala).
Mister Hyde dares many things, part 1
In 1980 the awful Mr. Hyde sent word on the grapevine. He would pay five millions to anybody who could bust him out of his special cell in Ryker’s. Attracted by the money and the challenge, Batroc exchanged coded messages with the prisoner, who gave him the coordinates of an experimental energy-dampening projector he had built.
Using the projector to trigger a black-out on Ryker’s, Batroc and a paramilitary team. It was quite possibly made up of ex-Foreign Legion commandos, given their competence and the faint French accent of several members. Then they stormed Ryker’s. They opened Hyde’s cell with a rocket launcher, grabbed the principal and got out just as the blackout generator burned out.
Hyde did not actually have the money. However, Batroc was surprised by Hyde’s monstrous strength and forced to agree to participate to a plot. Hyde told Batroc that the plot would earn the Frenchman at least five millions, thus fulfilling their deal.
Hyde and Batroc boarded and hijacked a Roxxon Oil supertanker, which they sailed into the New York City harbour. They threatened to detonate the huge quantities of liquefied natural gas if they did not receive one billion dollars from Roxxon.
However, Batroc was wary about the psychotic Hyde. He added one demand – to have Captain America delivered as an hostage. This way, the star-spangled Avenger would be nearby in case things went wrong.
Mister Hyde dares many things, part 2
Cap agreed to the demands, and soon escaped and attacked. However, just like Batroc, he was caught by surprise by Hyde’s monstrous strength. Hyde was riding on a fresh dose of his serum, making him much stronger than during his previous encounter with Cap.
Batroc saved Cap’s life by appealing to Hyde’s vanity. As a result, Hyde strapped Cap to the bow of the super-tanker instead of just beating him to death.
The situation was getting out of control, and Batroc discretely kicked loose one of the chains holding Cap prisoner. Hyde announced that he intended to crash the super-tanker into the harbour and destroy Manhattan. His goal was to kill his traitorous partner the Cobra, whom he assumed to be in town.
Aghast at the madman’s plan, Batroc attacked Hyde. The furious fighting Frenchman fought Hyde without much of an effect. But that bought time for Captain America to finish freeing himself and get his shield back.
The two men fought Hyde together. But despite their strength and excellent teamwork they couldn’t land a telling blow. It was Hyde who defeated himself. Seething with anger against his more skilled and agile opponents, he ripped off a pipe to spray them with whatever was circulating inside, but only succeeded in dousing himself in liquid gas and fell overboard.
While Cap dove to rescue Hyde, Batroc pocketed the billion-dollar ransom. Then he discretely fled in his luxury boat. However, Cap had Batroc intercepted by the Coast Guard, and the mercenary good-naturedly surrendered.
Zaran and Machete, part 1
In 1985, Stane International offered a huge sum for Captain America’s shield. Batroc recruited two reputed mercenaries, Machete (Ferdinand Lopez) and Zaran the Weaponmaster (Maximilian Zaran). Machete insisted on having a go at Captain America alone, which did not pan out.
Batroc then sent both Zaran and Machete after Cap and Nomad (Jack Monroe). They did obtain Cap’s shield. Overjoyed, Batroc delivered it to Stane and celebrated with his new friends. Machete and Zaran told Batroc he had sent them in because he was afraid of Cap. As a result, the furious (and now very drunk) Batroc leapt out of the bar to seek and confront Captain America.
Batroc was far too inebriated to represent a serious threat for Cap, even without his shield. Still drunk, Batroc negotiated with Cap – one free shot at Cap in exchange for the name of the person who had his shield. Cap agreed to the deal, and Batroc delivered a mighty kick.
For a few seconds, to Batroc’s horror, it looked like he had killed Cap. But the living legend got up and punched Batroc out, then proceeded to leave to get his shield back. Meanwhile, as per the bet, Machete and Zaran split Batroc’s share of the bounty between themselves.
Zaran and Machete, part 2
The three men continued to work together. They took a contract from Trickshot to kill Hawkeye in Paris. Over a long running battle Batroc and his men, displaying but a shadow of their ordinary acumen, were defeated.
It was perhaps during this era that Batroc the Leaper was plucked out of the timestream by Krona. Along with dozens of other villains, Batroc was to defend Krona’s stronghold against an alliance of super-heroes from both the DC and the Marvel Universes.
Telepathically told that the Batman was one of the greatest fighters of the DCU, Batroc sought him and engaged him in combat singulier. Batman prevailed after what seems to have been a difficult fight.
The Bloodstone Hunt
Batroc and his Brigade were then hired by Baron Heinrich Zemo to accompany him on his global quest for Bloodgem fragments. The Brigade performed well despite repeatedly clashing with Captain America and Diamondback (Rachel Leighton). They reunited all known fragments.
At one point, seeing Cap fight an entire pack of sharks, Batroc took a blade from Machete and swam to Cap. The Frenchman knifed a shark in the eye and let it bleed to save Cap’s life. As he saw it, it would have been be ignominious for Batroc’s grandest foe to die as a victim of mere animals.
Witnessing the reconstituted Bloodgem resurrecting Baron Helmut Zemo in a frightening torrent of mystical energy that triggered the local volcano, Batroc’s Brigade decided they were not paid enough for this. They stole Cap’s Quinjet and got away from the spooky display of tectonic and otherworldly power.
A tour of Europe
Batroc’s next employer was the Kingpin, who was attempting to gain a business foothold in Europe. His cadre to spearhead the operation included Batroc, Rapido (a fellow Frenchman and French Foreign Legion alumni), the assassin Snakebite, and French wheelman Armand Chauffard.
This team was tasked with assassinating key European crime leaders to create a vacuum for the Kingpin to fill. During the assignment they repeatedly clashed with the Punisher and his ally Morgan Sinclair. But the mercs were generally successful and kept ahead of the opposition.
During this campaign, Batroc went for yet another flashy move. He caught up with the Punisher’s Jaguar convertible on a stolen motorbike, leapt from the bike into the Jaguar and beat the Punisher up. While he had the upper hand, Batroc was defeated when Sinclair stomped on the brake at a critical moment, ejecting him from the car.
The Punisher gathered more allies including the South American criminal Tarantula (Luis Alvarez). Batroc knew about Tarantula, a highly skilled kickboxer and martial artist with artificially enhanced speed, strength and durability. The Frenchman wanted to duel him.
Batroc disguised himself as a security guard during a London operation, and did get his solo shot at Alvarez. Batroc dominated the fight and won. But he was hit by one of Tarantula’s poisoned spikes, and had to run away to find an antidote.
In preparation of the 1993 A.I.M. weapons expo on Boca Caliente, Batroc set up a fighting event for the villain Crossbones. Crossbones had boasted that he could defeat any five men Batroc could assemble in one-on-one hand-to-hand combat, and Batroc had taken him up on his bet. The Frenchman recruited :
Crossbones did win these four ring matches, and then fought and defeated Batroc. During this last fight, Batroc realised that his opponent was a disguised Captain America.
Batroc told Cap he would stay silent if Cap threw the fight, but “Crossbones” refused the deal and twisted Batroc’s ankle. Zaran then realised the truth about “Crossbones”. As a result, numerous villains attending the expo — a major underworld event — attacked.
Batroc and the Brigade relaxed and ate popcorn in the benches while watching the fight. But Cap escaped in the thorough confusion that resulted from the dogpile.
That was but a setback !
Batroc was next briefly seen enthusiastically participating in a brawl at a Bar With No Name. The bouncer, Angar the Screamer, put an end to it by stunning everyone with an area-of-effect sonic attack.
While in Montréal, Batroc witnessed a bank attack. He was about to walk away when the wife of the manager hired him to save her husband. Batroc leapt in and spectacularly defeated a gang of Uzi-totting goons and a telekinetic dwarf. However, the glory-craving manager rushed to be in front of the cameras, ruining Batroc’s TV interviews.
Outraged, Batroc dumped a garbage can on him, filled the now empty garbage bag with money laying around whilst nobody was watching, and made a big show of giving the bounty back to the manager’s wife. He then left with the garbage bag full of money over his shoulder.
His next encounter was less successful, though. He lost a fight with Captain America and was arrested with a sackful of money and jewels. His next clash with Cap was also unsuccessful, since the Wasp came to support Cap and blasted him from behind.
Death of Machete, death of Captain America
The insane killer Every-man (Larry Ekler) later murdered Machete in South America in unrevealed circumstances. Furious, Batroc investigated the murder but ran out of leads. He went to New York City to enlist Captain America’s help.
Batroc was captured by the automated defenses of Avengers’ Mansion. Yet, he learned from a tense and hostile Cap that Machete’s killer had been stopped a few days ago. Batroc insisted that he owed him and to at least offer him a drink to thank him. He also guessed that Cap was distraught because he too had lost a friend. The aged Arnold Roth had just passed away.
Mollified, Captain America freed Batroc from the restraints and invited him for tea at the Mansion.
Cap eventually confessed that he had but hours left to live due to a wasting disease, and spent this time discussing with Batroc about their respective lives. Captain America hoped to convince Batroc to become a hero. Then he got too sick and retired to his bedroom, where he passed away. George Batroc was the last man to see him alive.
Second half of the 1990s
Batroc wasn’t seen for three years. It is *possible* that he was active as a hero during that time.
After Captain America returned from his apparent death Batroc, perhaps feeling betrayed, was hired by HYDRA to fight him. HYDRA wanted Batroc to throw the fight since they had a complicated plan that involved boosting Cap’s popularity. But Batroc didn’t intend to follow orders.
Cap refused to fight. And when Batroc tried to force him to, Hawkeye intervened. The fight between Batroc and Hawkeye was brief, as it took place on an ice rink where Batroc could retain his footing but Hawkeye couldn’t. Cap then defeated Batroc by using his shield as a sort of snowboard, leaving Batroc to collect his pay after all.
Batroc’s Brigade was later hired by the Albino and Taskmaster to fight Hawkeye. But they curiously under-performed and were soundly defeated – though they fulfilled the contract. Batroc spent the money as a gambler and bon vivant in Monte Carlo, renting the most luxurious suite in town.
An encounter with Deadpool at the casino led to a fight, and Batroc was defenestrated and defeated. After he recovered, Batroc was hired along with Zaran to ambush Gambit (Remy Lebeau). But like all the assassins hired to kill Gambit they fought in an oddly incompetent manner. Batroc and Zaran were sent to a prison called the Cage.
Their time in that prison wasn’t a bad experience. With all the Cage convicts being deprived of their superhuman powers, superior hand-to-hand fighters like Batroc were top dogs in gen pop.
C’est pas fini, mon ami !
The thrilling second half of this profile can be read in Batroc profile #2 – Le tireur dans les coins. It has the later history, personality, quotes, game stats for DCH and M&M.
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Source of Character: Marvel comics (chiefly Captain America books).
Helper(s): For Kansas Jim, sigma.net, Roy Cowan, Phil Dixon, Frank Murdock, Peter Piispanen, Chris Cottingham.