Like with our other Weapons Locker articles this is a technical feature, with stats and rules bits that are used in almost every writeups.org entry featuring bows.
Like with our other Weapons Locker articles, it also includes selected information of interest to role players using these weapons in a game. It’s edu-ca-tional, we tell you.
Like with our other Weapons Locker articles, this entry is entirely about *fictional* weapons. We only care about how such weapons perform in stories. Realism isn’t a concern, though there’s enough information for verisimilitude.
(For additional explanations about the game stats, see the “applied archery 101” section.)
[BODY 02, Enhance (EV): 01 (cap is 03), Enhance (Range): 02 (cap is 04), Ammo: 01, Recommended STR: 02, R#03, Limitation: Low Penetration, Descriptor: Piercing].
Usually a small, light bow with a weak pull. It might have been improvised by a knowledgeable person using a branch and some string. Or it might be an early form of shortbow.
Many Classical bows (such as those used by Ancient Greeks or Egyptians), and most Native American bows will fit into this category.
Draw weight is somewhere in the 40-50 lbs. range. Therefore, arrows are more likely to wound than kill. It’s meant to hunt small game.
Such bows usually are a “self bow”. This means that they are made from a single piece of carefully chosen wood. Slightly more advanced bows, or bows made in areas lacking suitable trees, are backed bows. This usually means sinew glued to the back of the bow to improve tension.
Shapes vary. Most look like the letter D. But many ancient bows looked more like the letter C while many American and European bows looked like the character [.
Size depends on origin. Somewhere between 1m and 1.7m high, with weight in the 600-700 grams range.
Variant – ninja half-bow
[BODY 02, Enhance (EV): 01 (cap is 03), Enhance (Range): 02 (cap is 04), Miniaturisation: 02, Ammo: 01, Recommended STR: 02, R#03, Limitation: Low Penetration, Descriptor: Piercing, Drawback: Must be assembled before use, which takes a minimum of three Phases for the best experts.]
In the stories, ninja have special hankyu (“half-length bow”, or shortbow). These can be disassembled in two halves, each hidden within a kimono sleeve. The bow is then swiftly assembled and strung before use.
[BODY 03, Enhance (EV): 01 (cap is 04), Enhance (Range): 03 (cap is 06), Ammo: 01, Recommended STR: 03, R#02, Limitation: Low Penetration, Descriptor: Piercing].
A more powerful bow, with a pull around 60-75 lbs. A serious weapon for ancient war.
Historical examples include most European and Chinese longbows. These usually are taller than their wielders (1.8m high or so).
Another example is the composite bow (not to be confused with the compound bow). Those have a body made of carefully selected, assembled and layered wood, sinew, bone, horn… The exact mix depends on what’s locally available. The short, heavy Turkish bow is a fine example of a composite bow.
Operating bows in this category requires superior upper-body strength. Plus lengthy training. Being an archer is being a specialist.
[BODY 04, Enhance (EV): 01 (cap is 05), Enhance (Range): 03 (cap is 07), Ammo: 01, Recommended STR: 04, R#02, Limitation: Low Penetration, Descriptor: Piercing].
Whichever bow has a fearsome enough reputation. For instance :
- The Anglo-Welsh longbow.
- The Japanese daikyu.
- Bows built for exceptionally strong persons. Like Odysseus’ bow in Homer’s tales, which ordinary warriors couldn’t even string.
- Fantasy bows that sound sufficiently ominous. Like the bone bows of Melniboné in Stormbringer. Or which are built and used by folks reputed for their nigh-supernatural craftsmanship and archery. That usually means Elves.
- Modern custom-built bows bristling with shiny accessories whose role is unguessable to the layman, but sure look dangerous.
Of course, almost every comic book or video game badass archer will have a badass bow.
The English longbow…
…was also used in Wales. But this pales compared to Robin Hood’s narrative footprint.
It is a huge affair – 2+ metres tall. It’s hard to tell what their pull weight was, though 80+ lbs. seems likely. This is an awful lot, especially if one is to aim correctly.
As a result there’s a whole body of facts and legends about yeomen archers, and an oft-quoted proverb (“to train a yeoman in archery, start by training his grandfather”). The training regimen took a while to develop and had to start at a very young age.
Various apocryphal-but-we-don’t-care-in-this-article titbits include :
- Skeletal deformations caused by lifelong training. Such as an enlarged left arm, or horn and bone spurs along the right one.
- Historical longbows having such a high draw weight that no modern bowman could accurately shoot them.
- The English longbow being the ultimate and most devastating battlefield weapon of its time.
There is also plenty of folklore around how to select the height and weight of the bow assigned to an archer. Same height as the archer with his arms raised, same weight as the archer at birth, etc.
The Japanese 大弓…
… (pronounced daikyu, meaning ”great bow”) is asymmetrical. ⅓ of the height is under the archer’s hand and ⅔ above. This means that it can also be used while riding a horse.
The drawing technique is different (more on that later) so the draw weight is usually circa 70 lbs. The bow is usually about 2.1 metres tall. They are usually built of bamboo and wood laminate.
The great bow was, along with the sword, a symbol of both martial excellence requiring lifelong training to master, and of the warrior caste. Kyujutsu (techniques of archery) would give birth to kyudo (the way of the bow). Kyudo is a contemplative and meditative expression of older Japanese aesthetics and Shinto spirituality.
Thus, along with the brave samurai, the other cliché daikyu expert is the Zen master. Who might even be blind.
The main ways of keeping your arrows ready for use are :
1/ Stuck in the ground just in front of your firing spot
This was probably the most common approach for footmen.
Welsh and English longbowmen had the charming habit of urinating on their arrows. But one doubts it actually helped infecting wounds.
2/ Tucked under your belt
Another common approach in Europe. Especially if you were but a poor yeoman. It is difficult to carry more than five or six arrows in this way, though.
One Japanese version is a rectangular piece of cork attached to your belt, in the small of the back. You can stick about four arrows into one. This is used by DC Comics character Shado.
3/ Fictional quiver
These are rigid and worn on the back. While this allows for carrying a bunch of arrows, this is not the most convenient arrangement. Much like your back is not the most convenient place to carry two-handed melee weapons.
This is so prevalent in fiction, however, that this carries no game penalties in terms of fast-draw. Fictional archers also always know how many arrows are left in their quiver, even though they can’t see it.
In comic books, rigid back quivers can carry up to 40 arrows or so. Some characters have two such quivers.
4/ Arrow bags
A tube of tough fabric hanging against your right shoulder blade and buttock, with all arrows pointing downward. It might have leather spacers to separate arrows and protect their fletching. So it’s less impressive, but more sensible, than fictional quivers.
The bag also has flaps at both end, to insert or draw arrows (which is always done point-first). It is not unusual to pad the flap holding the arrow heads with straw, so the points won’t damage the canvas.
5/ Thigh quiver
Some rigid quivers were worn along the right thigh, hanging from the belt. Maximum capacity is maybe 12 arrows.
They are pretty noisy, though.
6/ Bow quiver
Modern hunting compound bows can have the quiver attached directly to the bow, holding 3-10 arrows. It can be attached and detached easily with a thumbscrew.
In DC Heroes terms, use the Ammunition Load Drawback (in New Rules – Drawbacks document). A 20-arrow dorsal quiver would thus look like this — [BODY 01, Enhance (EV): 01 (cap is [per bow type]), Ammo: 20, Limitation : Ammunition load for my bow].
The same quiver holding two kinds of arrows could be bought as, say, one 12-arrow quiver and one 8-armour-piercing-arrow quiver. Even if it’s physically the same container.
That usually means compound bows. Appearing in the 1970s, these use one of the great mechanical strength multipliers. No, not the lever, the pulley. Compound bows thus have a very long string set in cams. These multiply the strength of the archer.
Some fantasy bows might present the same multiplier by being composite bows made of supernatural material. Such as dragonthorn wood.
Medium-powered compound bow
[BODY 03, Enhance (EV): 02 (cap is 04), Enhance (Range): 03 (cap is 06), Ammo: 01, Recommended STR: 02, R#02, Limitation: Low Penetration, Descriptor: Piercing].
Badass compound bow
[BODY 04, Enhance (EV): 02 (cap is 05), Enhance (Range): 03 (cap is 07), Ammo: 01, Recommended STR: 03, R#02, Limitation: Low Penetration, Descriptor: Piercing].
Heroically strong archers (STR 04) will thus be equally efficient operating an ancient bow or a compound one. This models most genre fiction.
Modern archery gadgets
Modern bows can also bristle with gadgets. In stories, these usually are just here for the tacticool factor.
But a modern archery specialist might actually use them, so here are the main ones :
This is a 6”-8” cylinder mounted on the bow. It points in the same direction than the arrow.
A stabiliser is basically a shock absorber. It lessens the felt weight release and vibration. This makes a bow quieter, and easier to keep on target for successive shots. It also lessens fatigue when firing many arrows.
Using high-quality stabilisers, padded cams, special string, etc. a fictional bow can be made quite silent. It is thus *vaguely* plausible as a special military force weapon. Such a bow would have a Stealth Archery Suite [BODY 03, Thief (stealth): 03, Limitation : Thief (stealth) only to muffle the shots].
Those are swivelling fins. They raise and support the arrow as the string is drawn back, lining it up with the eye. When the arrow is shot they softly slide away in order not to interfere with the arrow and its fletching.
Arrow rests have no game effect. But describing how the smooth metal fins raise the arrow as the string is drawn can be cool.
For precision archery, knowing the exact range to the target is important to compensate for arrow drop.
Laser rangefinders have no game effect, however. High-skill archers can precisely eyeball the target without a rangefinder. And in fiction mediocre bowmen will not hit anything important with or without electronic gadgets.
Less technological bows will have a more traditional pivoting sight with day-glo yardage markers, facilitating the estimation of range, and a bubble level.
Pendulum sights were also a common solution some years back, but are usually only useful at 25 metres or less.
For long range shooting, some bowmen use a breeze detector. This is because arrows are quite susceptible to even light winds.
This is a tiny plastic bottle that can squirt fine mist in the air, to visualise the direction and strength of wind. Like the rangefinder and for similar reasons, it has no game effects.
This is simply a hole you can look through. This is much like closing one eye before shooting, only more efficient as it focuses vision where you are aiming.
A peep sight is worse than useless when shooting fast, but for careful aiming shots it is useful.
Good models have four equidistant, day-glo points around the hole. By eyeballing the angle of the target between the various points, you can achieve what is basically a crosshair effect. The dots are day-glo since hunting often takes place at dusk or dawn.
Peep sights have no game effect. But I suppose you could go wild and have a wide-angle optical scope with actual APs of Telescopic Vision mounted on your high-tech bow. Or even, God forbid, a laser sight on a balanced sight arm.
Applied archery 101
Proposed DCH rules
- The Enhance Power is explained in the New Powers part #1 document.
- The Recommended STR mechanics are explained in the Gadgetry document.
- The Limited Penetration mechanics are explained in the New Limitations document.
- The damage Descriptors are explained in the Miscellaneous Rules document.
All these proposed rules are patches to avoid some silly side-effects, and help with granularity at low power levels.
Both Enhances for bows — EV and Range — augment the wielder’s STR.
The main problem with bows is that they have Ammo: 01. Archers always have to reload (grab, nock and draw a new arrow) to shoot anew. See the Ammunition Restriction discussion in our New Rules – Drawbacks document for more.
The Lightning Release Schtick (see the Schticks document) is thus critical to combat archery. It is what separates heroic archers from guys with a bow.
STR and BODY aspects
In practice, there’s a type of bow for STR 02 (ordinary people), one for STR 03 (strong people), and one for STR 04 (heroically strong people). You always end up with the same EV and Range.
The mechanics are written in a bit more complex manner to handle corner cases. Such as having to use a bow that’s too powerful for you (because, say, you’re wounded).
The BODY of stronger bows is highballed. This represents comic book archer commonly using their bow as a sturdy melee weapon.
Some heroic archers use high-pull-weight bows but do not otherwise demonstrate great physical strength. This can be handled by the Mighty Thews Schtick.
Can Be Fired From Horseback Advantage
Most bows cannot be fired from horseback, so those that can have an Advantage.
The cost of this Advantage is entirely dependent upon the campaign. In a low-tech campaign where bows are the main long-range weapons and horse-riding is the main form of transportation, it would be worth five points. In a modern setting, this is more of a sidenote and is worth a single point.
The best historical horse archers were a big deal – think of the Mongols. But it ain’t what it used to be.
Bows with this Advantage can also be using when crouching. Which means they are easier to use while taking cover. Or from a vehicle in a Mad Max environment.
Parabolic Shooting Combat Manoeuvre
This Offensive Combat Manoeuvre trades a +1CS to the target AV for an additional AP of Range, without a cap.
This represents master archers occasionally making a “miracle shot”.
Releasing two (or more !) arrows at once is usually a sign of a Combat Manoeuvre. A Flailing Attack, a Critical, a Multi-Attack…
For simplicity’s sake it still consumes but one Ammo, as usual – since it’s a single attack. The multiple nocked arrows are just a SFX.
Applied archery 102
Western and Eastern styles
When drawing, a typical European archer will have the back of the arrow drawn to nearly rest against their face (usually the cheek).
A typical Asian archer will draw their arrow higher, and the rear of the arrow will be behind their head. Generic Asian arrows tend to be longer, too – one meter is not uncommon.
Likewise generic Europeans nock their arrows so they lie on the left-hand side of the shaft (if they are right-handed). While generic Asians use the other side.
Japanese styles are also less reliant on having an anchor point. An anchor point is a set distance to draw the string back – say, until the base of your thumb rests on your cheekbone. This gives shots more predictable but less flexible ballistics.
Occidental shooting is traditionally said to be slower and more precise, and Oriental shooting faster and more intuitive. Depending on the story, this difference can be emphasised or ignored.
A third, modern way is to use a gadget called a release aid.
This is a robust wrist wrap with a rod extending between the fingers. At the end of the rod is a clamp, which holds the string. Thus, the string can be held back with the entire wrist, arm and shoulder. Not just the fingers.
The clamp is released by a firearm-like trigger on top of the rod. This allows for careful aiming and precise shooting. Release aids are usually used in European-style shooting.
Low-tech release aids
Some ancient styles of arrow release used small metal objects to lessen felt draw weight. For instance the Mongolian shooting style has the string resting against a metal ring worn on the thumb.
Kyudo archers wear a special glove. The thumb of this glove is reinforced using wood or an other hard material. And there is a notch carved for the string right where the thumb meets the knuckle. From there :
- The bow is pulled back by making a thumbs down sign with the knuckle joints of the fingers slightly extended and pulling back.
- The bow is fired by twisting the wrist upward to release the string from the glove’s notch.
Archers will often wear protection when shooting. The main one is leather to protect the wrist against the sharp bite of the string.
Protecting the whole arm and even part of the chest is not a bad idea. And clothing must be prevented from interfering with the drawing and release.
As to the myths about Amazons cutting off one breast to better shoot their bow, it seems to be a metaphor. Even an unusually buxom archer will manage fine with an appropriate brassiere. And she can always add a piece of protective leather on her chest if expecting to shoot in chaotic, stressful circumstances.
Assuming that she’s not wearing armour in the first place, that is.
Ancient bows are not AK-47s.
When not in use they have to be unstrung. Otherwise the string will become less taut. This is a problem if you unexpectedly need to use your bow in a hurry.
Hot climates will also damage the wood over time.
But the main issue is humidity. Its effects on wood or even composite layers are unkind, and a damp string isn’t the best. Bows can be regularly treated with beewax or a similar substance to shield them against humidity. In rainy or tropical climates you’ll also want to regularly wax the string of a low-tech bow.
As can be imagined, being at sea is terrible for most ancient bows.
Modern bows, especially expensive one, are far less vulnerable to the environment thanks to synthetic materials.
Wrestling that string
Ancient warbows apparently had a considerable pull weight – at least 60 pounds, and seemingly 85+ pounds on larger and later models. From period texts, it seems that lower tension wasn’t worth it on the battlefield.
Beyond the strength needed to pull the string, this causes issues when said string breaks. Restringing an ancient bow in battle doesn’t seem to have been generally possible. Archers would thus have stringed, spare bows prepared before the fighting.
Stringing a 80+ pounds pull ancient bow — such as a daikyu — will normally require two archers and a fair bit of grunting. Or a man of heroic strength, such as the aforementioned Odysseus.
Ancient archers will also carry spare strings, usually in a box sealed against humidity. The Japanese models I’ve seen were donut-shaped.
I used to be an adventurer like you…
Surviving being shot with an arrow is only the beginning of the problem. Most arrowheads cannot be torn away from the wound without massive tissue damage. They are one of the few weapons at low tech levels that will routinely be stuck in their target.
Most fiction ignore such gory issues. Heroes hit by arrows somehow get easily rid of those.
But in grimier genre, things are going to be more involved. The best way is to push the arrow all the way through the body, cut off the head when it gets out on the other side, then yank the shaft from the other end. This is, needless to say, horribly painful. And it may not even be possible if there’s bone in the way.
Furthermore, the wound will keep bleeding until the arrow is out and it can be properly treated.
If you can’t get rid of the arrow that way, you’ll have gradually widen the entry wound channel with small blocks of wood and special tongs. While getting rid of the flowing blood and having the patient very drunk and/or very restrained by burly assistants. Eventually you can yank away the whole arrowhead.
The alternative is rapid infection and painful death.
Specialty heads aren’t trick arrows. They are realistic or semi-realistic arrows you could purchase at a specialised store or smithy.
The basic. Some modern takes on these have the blades pop out of the shaft after they’re fired, but beyond looking cool it has no in-game effects.
These inflict Bashing Damage. A high-tech version could be done by affixing a beanbag in lieu of a broadhead.
In a pinch it is always possible to use some garbage to blunt a arrow. Say a wine bottle cork, adhesive tape and an empty soda can.
Bodkin/heavy war arrow
A bodkin head looks like a sharp, elongated pyramid. These arrows are meant to punch through plate armour.
If they are of sufficiently high quality they will have Sharpness (Projectile weapons): 01.
A rag soaked in flammables is wrapped around the arrowhead, and lit just before shooting.
With such an arrow the Range is diminished by 1 AP, but it has some chance of setting what it hits on fire. Unless you’re firing at something readily flammable, a conflagration is unlikely though. Incendiary arrows have a better chance of working in large volleys.
These very broad head are intended to cut ropes. They are often of Japanese origin, and were allegedly used to cut the cords holding heavy Japanese lamellar armours together.
The Range of these arrows is lowered by two APs, but a Trick Shot to cut a rope using these has its penalty lowered by one CS.
These will require the Gadgetry skill, as they are not… particularly realistic. The Enhance APs and cap are identical to standard arrows for that type of bow.
Vaguely realistic explosive arrow
[BODY 01, Enhance (EV): XX (cap is XX), EV 05 (Area of effect 0 APs), R#04, Ammo: 01, Bonus: Projectile weapon and EV can be Combined, Limitation: Ammunition load for my bow].
Comic book explosive arrows
[BODY 02, Bomb: 07, R#03, Ammo: 04, Limitation: Ammunition load for my bow].
[BODY 02, Snare: 06, R#03, Ammo: 04, Limitation: Ammunition load for my bow].
[BODY 02, Enhance (EV): XX (cap is XX), Lightning (No Range): 07, R#03, Ammo: 04, Bonus: Projectile weapon and Lightning can be Combined, Limitation : Ammunition load for my bow].
[BODY 06, Cling: 05, Note: carries a 3 APs long line, Limitation: Ammunition load for my bow, Cling only to have the tip adhere to a surface, Note: easily reusable, and thus has no Ammo Drawback].
[BODY 02, Fog: 07, Ammo: 01, Limitation: Ammunition load for my bow].
Boxing glove arrow
[BODY 03, EV 03, Ammo: 01, Bonus: EV can be Combined with a bow’s Enhance (EV), Limitation: Ammunition load for my bow, Limitation: Range is reduced by one AP].
For further ideas, see the grenades selection. Howbeit trick arrows tend to have on or two APs less in most Powers than grenades, due to a smaller payload.
Helper(s): Darci, Roy Cowan, Kevin Berger.
Writeup overhauled on the 19th of May, 2020.